This article explains the chemical content of Bidara leaves in a series of Bidara plant research known for its use in traditional medicine and which has also proved very good in cosmetic applications and toiletry.


The Arabs call it Nabka. Sudan: Nabag, Nabak, Cidir, the Thorn of Christ (in folklore, this plant is said to be the source of the Crown of Thorns placed on the head of the Savior. Nigeria: Kurna. In English it is known as the Dom, the Thorn-Jerusalem or the Thorns of Christ, in France called Paliure, Epine du Christ, porte-chapeau, capelets, Argolou and arnaves.

Content of Bidara leaves for cosmetic ingredients

The chemical composition of the Bidara leaf oil (Zizyphus Spina-Christi) is obtained using the distillation method to have the main components: geranyl acetone (14.0%), methyl hexadecanoate (10.0%), methyl octadecanoate (9.9%), Pharnesyl acetone C (9.9%), hexadecanol (9.7%) and ethyl octadecanoate (8.0%).


All parts of the plant are used by local Arabs to help maintain a healthy lifestyle. This herb has also been used to induce good sleep because it has calming properties. In Saudi Arabia used for the treatment of ulcers, wounds, eye diseases and bronchitis. The Bedouin people use it for the treatment of wounds, skin diseases and as an anti-inflammatory. They also use it as a hot-lowering drug and diuretics. The Bidara tree is widely found in southern Iran. The Bidara tree locally known as "Sidr" and "Konar", has been used to wash hair and body. The leaves of the plant are also used in Iranian folk remedies as antiseptic, antifungal and anti-inflammatory, and to cure skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis. In China it has been used as a form of birth control. The water extract of Bidara leaves has antinociceptive properties in trials in rats and has a calming effect on the central nervous system. It has been described as anticathartic, diuretic substance, and tonic.


The Bidara tree is flowering around July to August, and the seeds are ripe from October to December. The fragrant flowers are hermaphrodite (it has a male flower type and a female BUBGA). This herb has a small white furry flower that is very fragrant. Chemical composition This plant has been extensively researched and has been known for its chemical composition. The main constituents of essential oils are alpha-terpineol (16.4%) and linalool (11.5%). The neutral hydrocarbon in the form of N-Pentacosane is (81%). Methyl esters that are isolated from Bidara leaves include methyl palmitate, methyl stearate and methyl miristat. Beta-sitosterol, oleanolic acid and maslinic acid are the main aglycones of glycosides found in the leaves of Bidara. The sugar content in the leaves of Bidara is lactose, glucose, galactose, arabinose, xylose and Rhamnosa, and also contains four saponin glycosides. The highest flavonoids content is found in leaves (0.66%). There is the content of quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside 7-O-Rhamnoside which is the main flavonoids compound in all parts of the plant. The chemical composition of the Bidara plant proves to be very complex and complete, in addition to alkaloids, there are zizyphine-F, Jubanine-A and Amphibine-H, a new peptide of the Spinanine-A alkaloid has been isolated from the bark of the Bidara tree. Spinanine-A is one of the 14 kinds of amphibine-B type alkaloid cyclopeptide.

Bidara leaves for Anti-microbial

Bidara leaves have been shown to be able to eradicate bacteria, fungi and other pathogens that are usually sufficiently resistant.


The polyphenols of Yemeni plants have conducted trials with ferrylmyoglobin to determine the antioxidant content of bidara leaves aimed at reducing oxidative degradation. The defence effect of saponins on Bidara leaves from cultured myocardial which is exposed to anoxia-reoxygenation is determined and found that lipid peroxidation is reduced.

Use for groceries

Chemical constituents confirm the use of beneficial fruit as a tonic (table 1). The fruit flavor is like a mixture of dates and apples and is highly appreciated by the Bedouin tribe because it has a very high energy value. The fruit can be eaten raw or dried and the fruit Bidara has a slight sense of refreshing acid, slightly resembling a dried apple. The Bidara seeds are rich in proteins, calcium, iron and magnesium. Food from this plant is a very important source of energy, protein and minerals. The tonic properties of the Bidara fruit can increase appetite, and can be used also as a laxative and has been used as a intestinal worms drug (vermifuge). Bidara Fruit also refreshes and restores, as well as enhances brain intelligence and is a cure for high blood pressure. In the western part of Sudan the fruit of Bidara is considered delicious food, (Kordofan, Darfur): Pulp sweet dried fruit and grinded to produce flour. One method to use this flour is to use a small metal cup cooked with steam.

The hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of the Bidara have been proven by researchers.

Skin and hair Care

This plant is already used in many parts of the world for skin care. The chemical composition and phytochemistry found in the leaf powder of Bidara can discolor and lengthen the woman's hair.

Bidara leaves protect the skin

A study was conducted where the water is bidara leaves (soaked in water for 24 hours) testing UV light radiation on the skin using a solar Oriel simulator and one application of the gel product. The skin color is evaluated (specifically for reddish skin) using the Chromameter Minolta. 80% of the subjects showed a drop in flushed skin and the gel reduced redness by 17.51% in all experiments.

As an antioxidant

Lipid peroxidation plays an important role in skin care problems and improves scalp conditions. Peroxidation and other oxidative damage can be caused by environmental damage resulting in free radicals (such as exhaust pollution, industrial smoke, ozone, UV rays, cigarette smoke, etc.,) and by biological damage such as micro-organisms and conditions Other adverse effects. This can result in problems for the skin and scalp. To avoid the side effects of lipid peroxidation, the use of antioxidants is a natural thing.

Protects DNA damage

The efficacy of the Bidara to protect human DNA cells caused by damage from actinic radiation was tested using the control test equipment modified by Regentec, a spin from the research firm of the University of Nottingham. Human DNA damage can be caused by damage described in the above antioxidant work.

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